Thursday, May 21, 2020

Is Japanese hard to learn

If looked at from a linguistic point of view, Japanese is considered one of the easier languages for a beginner to learn. It has a simple pronunciation scheme and with few exceptions a straight forward set of grammatical rules. Limitations on sentence structure are also quite minimal. The most difficult aspect of learning Japanese is the mastery of the reading and writing of kanji. An interesting characteristic of Japanese is that it is spoken differently if the speaker is a man, woman or child. There are, for example, many different words for I, and which version you use depends under which category you fall. An even more confusing aspect is that the speaker must choose the appropriate words depending on the relationship between oneself and the conversant. Another aspect of Japanese that may be hard for foreigners is that there are quite a few Japanese words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. The Japanese are typically shy when speaking other languages. Therefore, they are very sympathetic to the plight of foreigners trying to speak Japanese. One will find a lot of tolerance from the Japanese if you try to speak to them in Japanese. Do not be afraid of making mistakes! It may now seem that Japanese is a difficult language, but as is evident from the many foreigners that go to Japan, that spoken Japanese is not that difficult to learn. One will find that after a year in Japan a good mastery of the language can be achieved. It is estimated that 2.3 million people worldwide studied Japanese in 2003, and the number is growing. The largest area of growth can be found in the ASEAN counties (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) such as China and Korea. If youd like to get started learning, check out my lessons for beginners. Introductory LessonGrammar/ExpressionJapanese Writing for Beginners

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hero Worship - 1177 Words

â€Å"Hero worship never died and never will† (Carlyle, 208).The dreams of becoming a superhero, the desire for success, and the worship of heroic figures are deeply rooted in our hearts. My feelings about heroes are always triggered by the most pervasive form of modern art—films. Every time I watch a heroic film, I feel deeply moved by the strong personalities of the hero. In different films, he can either be a cowboy riding a horse, a warrior who fights for the independence of a country, a policeman who strikes the criminals or a successful man who makes a great contribution in a certain field. And right now, when writing this essay, the first heroic figure coming up on my mind is Rancho in the Bollywood film 3 idiots. Rancho’s â€Å"strong†¦show more content†¦Last but not least, I refer to Rancho as a hero because he has profound influences on his friends and people around him, and he is always ready to sacrifice for them. As Browne (1990) demonstra tes in his article, â€Å"yet the ultimate and final unselfish act is, of course, death in the service of others.† Putting another way, Browne here suggests that heroes are always ready to help others and the noblest heroic act is to sacrifice one’s life for others. In the movie, Rancho always considers his friends happiness before his. He has tried every possible way to persuade his friend Farhan and Raju to chase their own dreams instead of living under the shadow of their families. Though this is not an easy task, Rancho has made this possible by sacrificing his own happiness—been expelled from the college. Though Rancho’s sacrifice is not as big as â€Å"the noblest one†, he did have tried whatever he can to make his friends a better life, which makes him undoubtedly the hero of his friends. In conclusion, although there are several reasons why I refer Rancho as hero in myShow MoreRelatedEssay on Hero Worship809 Words   |  4 PagesHero Wors hip When asked to conjure up descriptions of a hero or heroism, many people would imagine similar scenes. The firefighters pulling a family from a burning building, a soldier saving his platoon from certain death, rescue workers pulling a stranded mountain climber from a precarious ledge, and the Knights of the Round Table saving a damsel in distress, are all examples of the common hero. Many people display heroism in everyday life but are rarely recognized either by their peersRead MoreAncestral Worship as Religion According to Herbert Spencer and Bhil Tribe.2269 Words   |  10 PagesAncestral Worship as Religion The Ghost-Theory of Herbert Spencer Brief reference may be made to Spencers well-known theory which finds the origin of religion in the worship of ancestors appearing in the form of ghosts. 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Teenage Pregnancy Free Essays

Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood, which is between 13 to 20 years of age. The term â€Å"adolescent† refers to the psychological maturation of an individual while â€Å"puberty† refers to the point at which reproduction becomes possible. Most people refer to this stage as a period that is highly stressful and volatile although teenagers nowadays successfully meet these challenges. We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now During this period, physical changes occur rapidly and sexual maturation occurs along with the development of the primary and secondary sexual characteristics. In an article by Kathleen Surburry in Time Magazine entitled, â€Å"Pregnancy Boom at Gloucester High†, the school is besieged by a boom in teenage pregnancy rates. Upon investigation of its principal, John Sullivan, it was found out that seventeen teenage girls made a pact to become pregnant and raise their children together. Teenage pregnancy can be considered as a social problem. As stated by Jarmrozik and Nocella (1998), â€Å"Social problems are social conditions, activities, attitudes and so on that at some stage may be perceived as problems, although they might have existed in society for some time without being seen in this way. The change in perception signifies a change in values, attitudes or interests, or new knowledge and awareness of a real or potential threat† Eric Erikson, created the eight phases of the process of socialization wherein each stage consists of a psychosocial crisis that an individual must face and attempt to find a resolution before proceeding to the next stage.   Adolescents (aged 13 years to 20 years) are on the fifth stage of the psychosocial crisis wherein individuals are battling with establishing an identity versus role confusion. This is marked by a period of learning one’s true personal identity that is separate from one’s peers. This is mainly a period of discovery and self exploration and most adolescents experience some aspects of identity confusion even though they are well adjusted. This is largely due to the peer pressure that is largely prevalent and feelings of self insecurity and doubt. At this stage, adolescents attempt to create their own personality, sexuality, ideas and roles as well as aiming to develop their strengths. It is not uncommon for teenagers to express various identities and may even go though a period of identity crisis in order to find their true selves. Successful resolution of this stage leads to the development of fidelity and the establishment of their own personal identity.   Failure to weather this stage will lead to role confusion wherein they may exhibit unstable behavior and may exhibit very minimal decision making skills. Adolescents often experience strong changes in various aspects: in their cognition, emotions and physical looks (Susman 2003). They may consider their parents or guardians as less important compared to their friends and peers. They often look up and idolize glamorous movie stars which may not be the best role models for them especially in a day when teenage pregnancy is highly glamorized by young stars. As such, teenagers may engage in socially unacceptable activities without fully understanding its consequences. Another theory that was put forth by Sigmund Freud is the development of personality through a series of stages wherein pleasure is centered on specific areas of the body that are erogenous in nature. The libido or psychosexual energy, thus, influences the individual’s behavior and actions. The early stages of this focus on attaining individual needs and leading to taking in consideration the needs of others. Adolescents belong to the last stage: the genital stage in Freud’s psychosexual theory. During this stage, the individual has a strong sexual interest in members of the opposite sex. The emergence of sexuality and desire usually appears at the onset of puberty. Adolescents may experience the first stirrings of sexual feelings and may seek to express this with members of the opposite sex without fully thinking of the consequences of their behavior. It must be taken into account that familial influences along with an individual’s religion and culture have an impact on how the adolescent express their sexuality (Abbassi 1998). Piaget states that the changes that occur within the mind as well as the widening social environment of the adolescent results to a high level of intellectual development. This is also known as formal operations. The adolescent develops the ability to determine possibilities, rank possibilities, solve problems and make decisions through logical operations. The teenager has the ability to think abstractly and deal effectively with hypothetical questions or problems. When confronted with a problem, the teenager can consider an infinite variety of causes and solutions. Thinking may now venture into such subjects as achieving world peace, finding justice, and seeking meaning in life. Adolescents have the capacity to reason with respect to possibilities and new cognitive powers allow the adolescent to do more far-reaching problem solving including their future and that of others. Although adolescents have the capacity to think as well as an adult, they lack experiences on which to build their decisions which may also result in conflicts between teens and their parents. Since human behavior impacts on nearly every aspect of life, this is an important area of science. Different fields in psychology can really help us a lot as it can provide us with a clear understanding of every concept about human personality and development. References: Abbassi V (1998). â€Å"Growth and normal puberty.† Pediatrics 102 (2 Pt 3): 507–11 Jarmrozik, A and Nocella, N. (1998). The Sociology of Social Problems.   page 21. Susman, EJ et al (2003). Puberty, sexuality, and health. In: Lerner MA, Easterbrooks MA, Mistry J. , editors. Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology. New York: Wiley ** Article can be accessed thru,8599,1815845,00.html?iid=sphere-inline-bottom How to cite Teenage Pregnancy, Papers Teenage Pregnancy Free Essays string(43) " primary researched I did a questionnaire\." GCSE Humanities | Teenage pregnancy | | Are young people represented fairly by the media in British society? | | 0900001846 Haleema Shafi | 2/3/2010| Deadline 17/03/10| Contents page Sections Page number * Abstract * Introduction * Methods * Results * Discussion * References * Appendices Abstract Introduction This research is an investigation into whether the media in the UK represents young people accurately. The media have been constantly running stories about young people binge drinking, being involved in knife crime, gang culture and drug taking, amongst others. The daily mail has run headlines such as ‘British Teenagers are the Binge Drinking Champions of Europe’ (Hope, 2009), ‘The Face of Britain’s Knife Crime Scourge: Teenage Mutilated during Vicious Assault With Three-inch Blade’ (Daily Mail Reporter, 2009), ‘Inside Feral Britain: a Blood Chilling Journey into the Heart of Teenage Gang Culture’ (Malone, 2007). We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now These stories give readers the impression that young people are violent, did not have respect of other or the law moreover they did not have respect for the society. This research will investigate whether media stereotype young people in this way or whether media reflect reality. This is done in the context of teenage pregnancy. In the Daily Mail the article ‘Time to get tough on teenage mums’ by Katie Hampson (2006) is saying that teenagers think that they can get an attractive lifestyle by getting pregnant. This includes getting free council flats and finical rewards which is provided by the tax payer. Hampons also suggests that young mothers have different values to the rest of society. One example is that teenage mums go out night clubbing and are sexually promiscuous (Johnston, 2008). This provides readers with a stereotypical view of young mothers. Stereotyping is when people are put into groups and are classed as something, for what they do or what they wear. One example from Rosenhan (1978) where she said ’on being sane in insane places’ this shows how people behave according to someone is labelled or stereotyped. Research has shown that the media has stereotype social groups in the past for example Stan Cohen (1980) shows the different type of stereotyping views that are used by the media. In his study he describes how the media are categorizing young people into groups which are ‘mods’ and ‘rockers’. From this the media nowadays is using the same thing with teenage pregnancy. The media is saying that young teenage girls are ignorant and did not think about others, or society as they get intoxicated and pregnant and are using the tax payers money and getting support from the government to help them. This can also lead to prejudice, discrimination and persecution. Prejudice- A prejudice is an implicitly held belief, often about a group of people. Race, economic class, gender or sex, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age and religion are other common subjects of prejudice ( en. ikipedia. org/wiki/Prejudice) Discrimination- Discrimination toward or against a person of a certain group is the treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit. (en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Discrimination) Persecution- Is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic. (en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Persec ution) For example, Stuart Hall’s stereotyped black males as muggers. People then believe the stereotype and behaved differently. People were afraid of being mugged by black males, and were scared to go out at night people called for the government to do something about the supposed problem of black males mugging. The government bought in the suss laws they were used to prosecute black males. ‘In Britain, the Sus law was the informal name for a stop-and-search law that permitted a police officer to act on suspicion, or ‘sus’, alone. ’(en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sus_Laws) Below is one article that I found about a sus law riot. SUS LAW SPARKED RIOTS By Emily Miller 28/05/2007 0’s Brixton (PA) NEW â€Å"stop and quiz† proposals carry disturbing echoes of deeply unpopular stop-and search laws that triggered mass riots in the early 1980s. Known as â€Å"Sus†, the law allowed police to stop, search and arrest anyone they chose as a crime prevention tactic. But it was widely believed to have been abused by officers to harass young black men. On April 2, 1980, police raided t he notorious Black and White Cafe in St Pauls, Bristol, sparking the most serious riots on mainland Britain since before the Second World War. And after Met police stopped and searched 943 people – the vast majority black and law-abiding – and arrested only 118 during a blitz on robberies and burglaries in the spring of 1981 trouble flared again in Brixton. Complaints of harassment and racism soared and riots on the streets left police cars and properties burned out. In July the same year Toxteth, Liverpool, was gripped by riots. Police were forced to withdraw as 150 buildings on a one-mile stretch of road were torched and 781 officers hurt. The law was hastily abolished that year. The government in the UK have said that they would try to lower the teenage pregnancy but nothing is been done about it. In the article Tony Shadow the health secretary quoted ‘it is unlikely that the government will meet its targets to have teenage pregnancies by 2010’. In this article ‘How Labour is losing the Fight to cut teen pregnancies’, the media is saying that teenager’s pregnancy rate has risen over the decade by 12% over the past ten years. In 2004 the amount of teenage girls under the age of 18 who got pregnant was 39,545. Teenage pregnancy has become a large problem in the UK, so bad that the government are using the tax payer’s money to help these teenagers to get abortion etc. In this article it shows that the total amount that the tax payers are giving is ? 138 million. In this same article it tells us the amount that the NHS are spending on teenage pregnancy a year, the amount is ? 63 million this is ‘more than 1 million a day’. Methods I have used primary and secondary recourses to help me with my project. For my primary researched I did a questionnaire. You read "Teenage Pregnancy" in category "Essay examples" In my questionnaire I asked nine questions. For my secondary research I used online articles from newspapers such as the Daily Mail. I did a questionnaire about teenage pregnancy to find out what people thoughts are about it and what their view were upon teenage pregnancy. I asked 10 people to fill in my questionnaire. 70% were female and 30% were male, their age group was the same percent to. The reason I did this was because I wanted to find out what young people thought about their fellow members in their same age group. I also asked other people, the ages of 30 and over, I wanted to find out what the older generation thought about the younger generation and weather they were stereotyping young people. After getting people to fill my questionnaires in I found out and interesting results. In my results when I asked the first question which was on ‘how many teenage pregnancies do you think occur in the UK’, the majority thought 39,545 and they were correct, this showed me that people are not stereotypical toward teenage pregnancy and it is only the media that is making teenage girls look bad and horrible. The second question I asked was where you think teenage mums are most likely to live. I found out that generally people thought they would live in a council house but a few thought that they live with their parents. This shows that many people are stereotyping all teenage girls and are saying that they live in council houses so they can get money. I found an article on in internet, which said that the government are planning on sending teenage mother to supervised homes where they are taught how to look after their babies. When I asked do you think teenage mothers get married to the baby’s father, I found an interesting result because it showed me that more than half of the people I asked said they do sometimes and 40% said they don’t get married. Sometimes it depends on what kind situation the teenager is. Most of the time teenagers get pregnant to gain attention or to have responsibility, when I asked ‘what do you consider to be the reason for young females to get pregnant’. When analysing the results I found out that 80% thought it was done accidental which shows me that people are not stereotypical towards teenager girls. 0% thought girls get pregnant to gain attention, whilst the other 10% thought it was because girls get lonely. When I asked the question ‘do you think that teenage girls plan to get married’, the results showed me that 90% thought they don’t whilst the 10% thought they do. When I asked if people thought there was enough information to help young people to avoid becoming pregnant. 80% thought that there was loads of information out there for all teenagers but they ignore it and the other 20% said yes. Bias- To incline to one side; to give a particular direction to; to influence; to prejudice; to prepossess. (http://thinkexist. com/dictionary/meaning/bias/) Results Figure 1 * 70% of female did my questionnaire and 30% of male did my questionnaire. Figure 2 * The highest age group that did my questionnaire were between the age of 17 to 20 years old, the other 30% were 30+. Figure 3 * My results show that 50% were British, 20% were Pakistani, 10% were Asian, 10; were Black African and 10% were others. How many teenage pregnancies to do think occur in the UK? Figure 4 For this question I got an interesting result, 50% of people thought that there were 39,545 teenage pregnancies in the UK, 20% thought there were 40,00, another 20% thought there were 55, 345 and 10% thought there were 85,567 teenage pregnancies in the UK. Figure 5| | * From the results I have found out that 30% think that teenage mums live with their parents, the other 60% think that they live in a council house and the other 10% think they own their own house. Figure 6 * 40% think that they don’t get married whereas the other 60% think they do sometimes. Figure 7 From the results it shows that 90% of people think that teenage mums don’t plan to get married and the other 10% think that they do. Figure 8 * From the results majority (80%) think there is enough information to help young people but they ignore it, (purple), and the other 20% think that there is plenty of information out there to help young females to avoid becoming pregnant. Figure 9 * The results show that 80% of people think that teenage pregnancy happens accidentally, 10% think that teenagers get pregnant to get attention, and the other 10% think it is because they are lonely. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Discussion and evaluation Are young people represented fairly by the media in British society? What is the focus of my evaluation? The focus of my evaluation is that I’m trying to study and find out how t eenagers in Britain are being treated by the media. I will examine if young people are represented fairly in British society. I will give examples and study how people view young teenagers, moreover how we can change the representation of young teenagers. The topic that I have chosen to study on is teenage pregnancy in the UK. How do I use sources of information in the evaluation? For my evaluation I will try to use different type of source to help me get different view by people. I will do some questionnaires for different type of people such as elderly people and middle aged people and teenagers themselves. I will also do some research on the internet, I will try to get less information from the internet and try to get more information about teenagers and how they are represented by using books, listen to the radio and television. I will give examples of how the teenagers are represented by asking them about their experiences, I will do this by going around college and meeting people outside of college and find out more. Arguments (against)| Arguments (for)| College- most teenagers are sensible, they might be doing A level in school or studying in college and focusing on their studies and their future, not out drinking and getting pregnant. There are many mature teenager in the UK, but the media are labelling them all saying stuff like they go out and party and get drunk etc. | | Beliefs- some people like myself don’t drink alcohol at all because of their religion. As a Muslim myself i | | | | References * http://www. dailymail. co. uk/news/article-1165002/British-teenagers-binge-drinking-champions-Europe. html * http://www. dailymail. co. uk/news/article-1124104/The-face-Britains-knife-crime-scourge-Teenager-mutilated-vicious-assault-inch-blade. html * http://www. dailymail. co. uk/news/article-483249/Inside-feral-Britain-A-blood-chilling-journey-heart-teenage-gang-culture. html * http://www. dailymail. co. uk/femail/article-379738/Time-tough-teenage-mums. html * http://www. dailymail. co. uk/news/article-401824/How-Labour-losing-fight-cut-teen-pregnancies. html * http://www. dailymail. co. k/news/article-1217047/Teenage-mothers-sent-hostels-council-flats-vows-Brown. html * en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Prejudice * en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Discrimination * en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Persecution (en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sus_Laws) http://thinkexist. com/dictionary/meaning/bias/ Appendices Questionnaire * What’s your gender? F M * How old are you? 1 4-16 17-20 21-24 25-30 31+ * What is your Ethnicity? British Pakistani Asian Black African Indian others prefer not to say * How many teenage pregnancies to do think occur in the UK? 39,545 40. 000 55. 345 75. 75 85. 567 90. 143 * Where do you think teenage mum most likely to live? With parents council house have their own house * Do teenage mums get married to the baby’s father? Yes No sometimes * Do you think teenage mums plan to get pregnant? Yes No * Do you think there is enough information to help young people to avoid becoming pregnant? Yes No yes, but teenagers ignore them * What do you consider to be the reason for young females to get pregnant? Accidental To gain attention loneliness to have responsibility Secure relationship with their partner How to cite Teenage Pregnancy, Essay examples Teenage Pregnancy Free Essays 1. (Robin Elise Weiss, LCCE) Another problem facing teen mothers is the use of drugs and alcohol, including cigarette smoking. No amount of any of these substances is safe for use in pregnancy. We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now In fact, their use can complicate pregnancy even further increasing the likelihood of premature birth and other complications. 2. Rebecca B. Singson In the Philippines, the sexual revolution has ushered in a period in which the average adolescent experiences tremendous pressures to have sexual experiences of all kinds. Filipino teens get a higher exposure to sex from the Internet, magazines, TV shows, movies and other media than decades ago, yet without any corresponding increase in information on how to handle the input. So kids are pretty much left to other kids for opinions and value formation when it comes to sex. 3. (Dryfoos, 1991) Bearing a child during adolescence adds up the stress and triggers changes in various aspects-physical, emotional, personal, and social. Among the well documented includes school dropouts, developmental and health problems, depression, poverty, etc. . (Dilworth, 2004) It’s found that literature on teenage pregnancy mostly focuses on the negative consequences of being a teen parent though there are teen parents who said that they enjoy being so and the child has brought more joy to the family. 5. Mariah Kilgore, The situation of teenage pregnancy has grown abundantly throughout the United States. Sex education taught in the school system can help teens realize the consequences of having pre-marital sex and prevent pregnancy. The realities and effects of teen pregnancies are sometimes difficult and harsh to face for the mother, father, and child. 6. Fullerton,1997 Social, economical, environmental as well as individual factors determines for the increase in teenage pregnancy rate and thus makes it difficult to disentangle the exact cause for teen pregnancies. 7. Finkel et al, 2002 Speaking about expectations for the future, one needs to remember that teenage mothers typically do not plan long-term and attempt to concentrate on their baby. On the contrary teenagers who plan long –term and expect a lot from their future delay pregnancy as much as possible and certainly for a longer period of time than those who lack hope and expectation of the future. 8. Jessor, R. , Jessor, 2002 Ignorance about reproduction and contraception is another factor that contributes to the increase of teenage pregnancy and places another burden on females and the society they live in. Misunderstanding and false assumptions regarding reproduction and contraception can lead to trial-and-error approach to exploring sexual life which in turn might result in an unwanted pregnancy. For instance, the majority of US teen females still believe that losing virginity without a condom will not result in a pregnancy, while others believe that one cannot get married if she did not have an orgasm. 9. Shah et al, 2003 Health or sex education that teaches females and males about contraception and safe sexual behavior is believed to be able to quickly and efficiently reduce the number of pregnancies in the USA as well as other countries around the world. Countries of the European Union that already use progressive sex education at young age at school witness lowering rates of teenage pregnancies. The proponents of early sex education in schools claim that providing all the needed information about sex, contraception and pregnancy to school children will allow them to make their own informed and educated choices and then decided what to do with their lives. 10. Ettinger, 2001 Resources needs to be directed in tackling psychosocial factors influencing teen mothers like low self esteem, low expectations, unrealistic goals, limited support etc. How to cite Teenage Pregnancy, Papers Teenage Pregnancy Free Essays Introduction Is it the new trend for teenager to have sex and get pregnant? What is the point? There are so many things we as teenagers have to gain during our teenage life especially our maturity. So how can we do that and also take responsibility for another child? Teenage pregnancy is complicated by our conflicting attitudes and behaviors. Yet we are shocked at the increasing numbers of teens who are sexually active. We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now As we all know, teenage pregnancy is on the rampage in St. Kitts and we are all wondering what may be the cause of it. In my presentation, I will first outline what is teenage pregnancy, depict the causes of teenage pregnancy, and also state some risk factors of teenage pregnancy and also state some recommendations on how I think we can curb teenage pregnancy. What is Teenage Pregnancy? Teenage pregnancy is technically defined as occurring when a woman under the age of 20 becomes pregnant. The youngest mother who ever gave birth was Lina Medina, who, in 1939, gave birth to a boy at the age of five. (Source: Wikepedia). Most girls however, do not become fully fertile until much later, example; the average age of menarche (first menstrual period) in St. Kitts is 11. 5 years. Babies born to teenagers are at risk from neglect and abuse because their young mothers are uncertain about their roles and may be frustrated by the constant demands of caretaking. The number of births to teenagers in St. Kitts has been fluctuating considerably over the last few years. Some teenage pregnancies occur as a result of their sexual inexperience and inadequate understanding of their reproductive cycle. This is most likely due to the increased unavailability of readily accessible contraception and abortion facilities, because of an increase in sexual activity. Research suggests that knowledge about reproductive matters and access to contraception are necessary to prevent unintended adolescent pregnancy. However, not all teenage pregnancies are unplanned. Some teenagers literally choose to want to have a baby due to their idealised views of pregnancy and parenting as well as presume from their male partners. Facts and figures In order to provide accurate statistics on the number of teenage live births in St. Kitts, I requested the information from the Planning Unit in the Ministry of Finance, Technology and Sustainable Development. Table 1 showing the number of live teenage births within St. Kitts during the period 2000 – 2005. Sourced from the Planning Unit, Ministry of Finance, Technology and Sustainable Development. 200020012002200320042005 Age Group 10-14 yrs231036 15-19 yrs160164138144113120 Total of live births162167139144116126 Chart showing the statistics shown above in Figure 1 Causes and Effects of Teen Pregnancy Causes You may be wondering about the causes and effects of teenage pregnancy. A teenage girl may become pregnant as a result of many various situations. Some teenage girls become pregnant while involved in long-term dating relationships. Other girls become pregnant after hooking up. And, some girls may become pregnant as a result of a rape situation. All teenage pregnancies are the result of sexual activity, whether voluntary or involuntary. No matter what measures are taken for birth control, the only 100% effective way to prevent pregnancy is abstinence( is the withholding or indulging of sexual activity) from all sexual activities. Only abstinence is guaranteed not to cause teen pregnancy. Parents shy away from discussing sex education with their children. Some may feel that their children are learning about it in school so why should they say it again. Nowadays parents are too busy to shoulder of their responsibilities and that’s why neglect is a cause for teenage pregnancy. They feel that if they have a child that they can be loved. Teens can prevent teenage pregnancies by using one of a number of options they have. These options includes: CHART Effects Facing an unplanned teen pregnancy can be hard. The effects of teenage pregnancy are not limited to having to decide whether or not to keep the baby, how to cope with motherhood or whether to make an adoption plan. Teenage pregnancy is usually a crisis for the pregnant girl and her family. Common reactions include anger, guilt, and denial. If the father is young and present, similar problems can occur in his family. †¢50% of adolescents who have a baby become pregnant again within two years of the baby’s birth. †¢Only 41% of teenage mothers complete high school, making it less likely for teen mothers to have the skills necessary to qualify for a well-paying job. †¢Teen fathers are very reluctant to support their child so all the strain is left on the mother. †¢Children born to teen mothers are more likely to have low birth weight and related problems such as infant death, blindness, and mental retardation. Children of teen parents often receive inadequate parenting, are subject to abuse and neglect, and often have insufficient health care. †¢Children of teen parents are 50% more likely to repeat a grade, perform poorly on tests and final exams, and ultimately less likely to complete high school. †¢Babies born to teenagers are at gre ater risk for neglect and abuse than those of a woman. Teenage mothers may feel like they are being demanded to do the job and they may take their frustration out on the child. Teen pregnancy, in my opinion, is awful. I feel that young women should not be having children at such a young age. I feel that these teenagers that are having babies are children themselves, and do not know how to take care of them as an older, more mature person might. At this young age, very few teenagers have jobs. Therefore, it may be difficult for them to support themselves and the baby. They would probably have to drop out of school, and get a couple of jobs; all this just to pay for diapers, food, clothing and healthcare. There are a number of risk factors for teenage pregnancy. They include: †¢unstable housing arrangements †¢poor school performance †¢low socio-economic background †¢family history of teenage pregnancies †¢low maternal education †¢father’s absence †¢low self-esteem Teen pregnancy can be a very difficult situation at times. For example, and I quote what a young girl tells about what she went through. This young girl thought she was in love. She was dating the cutest guys in the school and often wondered why he would be dating an average girl like herself. He said he loved her. This girl had been having sexual intercourse since she was fourteen years old. She slept with this guy and before you know it, she ended up pregnant. What was this young girl to do? The family pressures pushed the girl to have an abortion. Time went by and she met another guy. She talks about how this guy was her â€Å"first true love. † She has sexual intercourse with this guy and before you know it, she is pregnant again. What are her options? First she had an abortion. The girl is pregnant again and wonders what to do. How many times does a teenage girl get to do this? These young girls do not know how great the responsibility is to take care of a child. They might think it would be like a babysitting job or watching their little brother/sister, but in actuality, it is much more than that. If the guy you were with decided to leave you and the child, you would have to find ways to support yourself. Recommendations Adult parents can help prevent teenage pregnancy by providing guidance to their children about sexuality and the risks and responsibilities of intimate relationships and pregnancy. School classes in family life and sex education, as well as clinics providing reproductive information and birth control to young people, can also help to prevent unwanted pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs, teenagers and their families deserve honest and sensitive counseling about options available to them, including abortion, parenting and adoption. Special support systems, including consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist when needed, should be available to help the teenager throughout the pregnancy, the birth, and the decision about whether to keep the infant or give it up for adoption. Government should substantially increase its investment in effective teen pregnancy prevention programs. Investment in abstinence-only programs that exclude information about contraception wastes precious resources. To date, these programs have been proven ineffective in delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse and/or in decreasing sexual risk-taking behaviors among sexually active youth. Sex education help prepare the youth for changes in their bodies, sex effects and consequences, and how to respond and deal with dating, birth control, condoms, pills etc and also help prevent Std’s and pregnancy. Conclusion To conclude, teenage pregnancy is a serious issue that everyone needs to realise. While many teens that engage in pre-marital sex never become pregnant, some are not as fortunate. Teenage pregnancy has become all too common in this day and age. Some teens think it will not happen to them and do not use necessary precautions to protect against it. The simple desire to feel loved by another person may be a cause for an unexpected pregnancy. A teen may have a low self-esteem and simply be looking for acceptance in the bedroom. However, many teens that have a wonderful, affectionate family and are very confidant are merely looking for the few minutes of pleasure and avoid using protection. As several teens use the excuse that sex feels better without a condom, an unwanted pregnancy is likely to occur. One major effect of teenage pregnancy is that the child may be raised by a single parent. While most girls are looking for love and acceptance in sex, many guys are looking for the mere pleasure and are not planning on becoming a responsible teen father. The pressures of high school and hanging out with friends may be overwhelming for some teens, so they just leave. Raising a child as a teen is difficult, but raising a child alone would be almost impossible. With this I hope you will conclude that having a child is not a game; it’s a task we must take serious. Teens, we need to look at the effects as well as all the consequences before we go out and engage ourselves in something that can and could affect our entire lives. So let’s think before we become sexually active. Abstinence is the key but for those of us who can’t abstain, just remember to be wise, and condomize. I thank you! Bibliography â€Å"Teen Pregnancy: Fact Sheet. † Mar. 2000. â€Å"It Happens To â€Å"Good Girls† Too. † Dec. 1999 â€Å"When Children Have Children. † Jan. 2000 Wikepedia How to cite Teenage Pregnancy, Papers Teenage Pregnancy Free Essays Teenage pregnancy could be defined as a girl attaining motherhood before she reaches the legal age of adulthood. Rates of teenage pregnancy in Jamaica are among the highest in the Caribbean, with females between the ages of fifteen to nineteen years of age being responsible for one hundred and eight births per thousand women. Females between the ages of ten and nineteen account for twenty-five percent of births in Jamaica, and twenty-two percent of births between fifteen to nineteen year olds are second pregnancies. We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now Contrary to popular belief the teenagers involved are not the only ones at fault. These pregnancies are a result of other un-addressed issues surrounding them. These issues stem from three things: religious teachings as it relates to sex, family environment and peer pressure. These are the major influences within an individual’s life. Christianity is the dominant religion in Jamaica. Christianity’s approach to sex is abstinence only, despite the unsuccessfulness of this strategy. The Ministry of Health the statement was made that, â€Å"Early sex initiation is not a new fad and children are fully aware of this. In fact, many of us reading this article are products of teenage mothers or parents who were continuously taught about abstinence and valuing self but still engaged in early sexual relationships. On average, the age of sexual initiation in Jamaica for girls is 15 years and 13 years for boys, with some as early as nine years old. † Religious beliefs play a big role in this. Our churches vaguely inform our youths on sex, STD’s and contraceptives. Picture sexuality as the fruit God forbade Adam to eat. Adam had no knowledge of what the fruit or was why he wasn’t supposed to eat it. How to cite Teenage Pregnancy, Papers Teenage Pregnancy Free Essays Aneta Karkut English 102 Instructor Pols 6 March 2013 Paper #3 How to Stop the Rise of Teenage Pregnancy I turn on my television and an MTV show is on. I spend a little time watching it, though I’m not sure what I am watching. There are girls that look my age, and I see they have children. We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now They are arguing with their boyfriends and their parents, but most look happy overall. A commercial comes on it tells me â€Å"16 and Pregnant† will be right back. Curious about the name and the concept of this TV show, and why it even was a TV show with that name, I turned to my good friend Google. Off the Wikipedia blurb I discovered, â€Å"16 and Pregnant is an MTV reality television series produced by Morgan J. Freeman and Dia Sokol Savage†¦ It follows the stories of pregnant teenage girls in high school dealing with the hardships of teenage pregnancy† (â€Å"16 and Pregnant†). My dad walked by and asks what the show is about, I explain; he walked away shaking his head. This was heartbreaking to him. In his years, pregnancy at such a young age was unheard of and the thought of being unmarried? Forget it! It was not acceptable. For my generation? My graduating class had 9 pregnant senior girls, and those were just the ones we knew of. Statistically speaking, it could have been higher. The Center for Disease Disease Control and Prevention says, â€Å"More than 360,000 teen girls give birth each year in the United States. One half of teen mothers do not finish high school. † Peggy Peck, a journalist for ABC Health News found that, â€Å"In 2006, there were 42 births per 1,000 U. S. teenage girls, which was 4 percent higher than 2005. It has been reported that, â€Å"the United States continues to have the highest rates of teenage pregnancy and birth among developed countries† (Minnick 1). So why is that? Why as one of the leading countries with some of the best, health care, medications, and doctors are we struggling to reduce pregnancy among adolescents? The CDC recommends 3 solutions to this ongoing problem: * Include evidence-based sex education that provides accurate information and supports the needs of teens throughout their development. Include efforts to help parents and teens communicate effectively with each other. * Ensure sexually active teens have access to effective and affordable contraceptives. It is to be believed that these methods will help solve this ongoing epidemic among adolescents. As a country we can sit back and do nothing, but that would not be a good solution. We need to step up and help these children who will be the leaders of our nation tomorrow. After all, â€Å"Becoming parents while still adolescents can have numerous long term negative consequences†¦ hich include health impacts for both the mother and the baby along with other social, emotional, and economic detriments† so let us do everything we can as a nation to stop this (Elders 1). In 2009, â€Å"President Barack Obama signed an appropriations bill that ended funding for existing abstinence-only-until-marriage programs and put new teenage pregnanc y prevention initiative in the newly funded Office of Adolescent Health within the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services† (Krisberg 1). We have already put in the start to help fix the pregnancy problem but we need to continue to apply it. Abstinence works for some teens, but the idea that most teens will wait to have sex indefinitely is rigid and impractical† said Dr. Richard S. Guido, chair of ACOG’s Committee on Adolescent Health Care in an interview with Peck. And this statement is rather true. In high school, there is so much pressure, especially among boys to â€Å"lose it† even if it is just in a one night stand. When all children were being taught in school was that sex was bad and you must wait, the talk of the benefit of condoms and other contraceptive methods was looked down upon. It made the children feel as if they were doing something wrong getting protection so it was easier to just do it without one. By changing the way schools teach sex education, now they are able to talk about the complications that come with sex such as possible disease, STD’s, and of course the consequence of pregnancy. When people are given the straight up facts, it makes it easier to understand why someone should choose to wait and come up with this solution on their own as opposed to just don’t do it without a concrete reason. Sex education classes have opened doors for teenagers in explaining topics and and answering questions that some feel they cannot approach their parents about. Although it is an uncomfortable subject for some teachers to teach, and some students to listen to, the uncomfortableness does not weigh out the benefit of these programs. Some have not agreed that this is a good idea and recently, â€Å"U. S. Senate, Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, successfully included an amendment to restore $50 million a year in abstinence-only state funds† (â€Å"Teen Pregnancies†). Premarital sex goes against the morals of those who follow religion very closely and they are especially active to shut down the current school sex curriculum, but shouldn’t self values go after practicality in this case? How else would most adolescents get the correct information to have safe sex? I know I don’t talk to my parents, so I can speak for myself of the benefits of the program, and realistically speaking, in this day and age where the music, the celebrities, and the media are glamorizing sex, you can’t escape it. We need to do more to keep safe sex programs in school, and abstinence only programs out. Another source to help decrease the rise of teenage pregnancy is the power of parents themselves. The Mayo Clinic says, â€Å"Awkward as it may be, sex education is a parent’s responsibility. By reinforcing and supplementing what your teen learns in school, you can set the stage for a lifetime of healthy sexuality,† and that is so true. It is an uncomfortable subject, but a very important one. By building a healthy relationship with each other, teenagers build a trust and feel that they have a support system to answer their questions and help if anything goes wrong. Also by talking more openly, it is easier to get the methods that prevent pregnancy such as birth control when daughters don’t have to go behind the backs of their parents to see a doctor. Values are established and just having someone you can talk to and you know will help you can make the whole transition from adolescence to adulthood a lot easier. My grandma always gave me warnings and told me stories of things she read in the news, and when I started dating she taught me about date rape drugs and pedophiles. Although those were topics covered in school, her being further explain them to me made the world of differences and changed some of the choices I would have made and some of the people I associated myself with. When a teenagers has a pregnancy scare or actually does become pregnant, their parents are one of the hardest people to break the news to, but they are also some of the people who have the most answers, after all they were once pregnant with you. They can help you make the decision what to do with the baby whether it be adoption, abortion, or keeping the child and can provide the right care and support in this difficult time. Teens will very rarely come to parents to about this topic so it is so very important for the adult to initiate conversation, after all one day it may prevent your child’s pregnancy. â€Å"Traditional contraceptive methods such as birth control pills, which require consistent daily use, or condoms, which require a certain level of preparedness by having one available when needed, can pose challenges for many adolescents. Works Cited â€Å"16 and Pregnant. † Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 Feb. 2013. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. Krisberg, Kim. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Focusing On Evidence. (Cover Story). † Nation’s Health 40. 3 (2010): 1-14. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. Elders, M. Joycelyn. â€Å"Coming to Grips With the US Adolescent Birth Rate. † American Journal of Public Health Dec. 2012: 2205+. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. Mayo Clinic. â€Å"Sex Education: Talking to Your Teen about Sex. † Mayo Clinic. Mayo Founda tion for Medical Education and Research, 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 0 Mar. 2013. Minnick, Dorlisa, J. , and Lauren Shandler. Changing Adolescent Perceptions On Teenage Pregnancy. † Children Schools 33. 4 (2011): 241-248. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. Peck, Peggy. â€Å"Teen Pregnancies On the Rise Again. † ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Jan. 2010. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. â€Å"Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Engaging Communities. † Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 05 July 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. â€Å"Teen Pregnancies, Dangers on the Rise. † The Sacramento Observer. N. p. , 11 June 2011. Web. 06 Mar. 2013. How to cite Teenage Pregnancy, Papers Teenage Pregnancy Free Essays Teen Pregnancy In today’s society, teenage pregnancy has become the highest percentage rate in the U. S. In this present day, the problem is continuing and is vastly affecting our communities. We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now The problem is that teens need to know how easily they can become pregnant. They are effected emotionally, financially, and many other ways. Teenage girls are not prepared to take responsibility of a child at such a young age. I believe the society needs to become more aware of this problem and get more involved in preventing teenage pregnancy. There are many possible solutions to this problem. These are the problems that need to be resolved in our society. To begin, the problems of teenage pregnancy are continuing to increase thought out America. Too many teens are dropping out of school because they are pregnant and not able to finish school; or just don’t have the motivation to finish. Some either go back or get their G. E. D to get their high school diploma, so they can have the proper education. Most teenagers having low self esteem and feel peer pressured by their peers to have sex in order to fit in. Often they don’t know what they are doing and end up getting pregnant and not knowing the consequences. Now in this type of society, there are many teenagers whose relationships are based off sex. Nowadays some teens feel like they don’t have any other option. Another issue is when teens get pregnant it becomes a family problem. Parents have to help get involved financially to help their child help support their new found family. When teenagers have their baby and drop out of school, they lack job skills; they don’t have the motivation to go find better jobs with better incomes to support their child. Therefore, a teen mother leaves school because she cannot manage the task of caring for a baby and studying, and a teen father usually chooses a job over school so that he can pay bills and provide for his child. These are the problems that they go through while trying to raise their child. However, there are many possible solutions to prevent teenage pregnancy like sex education programs, teaching teenagers how to use proper birth control, or just an overall promotion of abstinence. There should be more programs on sex education and it should be enforced more in the school systems so teen pregnancy can be avoided. Some solutions can be proposed, life choices and recreation center which focus on giving teens options geared towards bettering their lives. These centers would be places where teens could come to hang out after school, in the evening and on the weekends. They have different activities like teaching the lessons of responsibilities, parenthood, and sex education programs. Another method is changing teenage behaviors in relationships, changing their focus and teaching them more important things other than sex like having better communication skills towards people. When teenage women have babies, they still have financial problems to take care of. Fortunately, the government is there to offer assistance. The government welfare really helps teenage parents maintain and help support their children. Some people depend on this benefit rather than getting a better job or finish school. In some cases, teen mothers may also receive help like Medicaid and food stamps. These benefits help support the child with food and health care without the parents having to worry about supporting because of the government. Lastly, the youth programs would greatly help to diminish teen pregnancy. As stated earlier, the programs should have different activities to help understand more of the importance of this issue. The programs can teach the teenagers about birth control, using condoms, improving parent-child communication, and behavior skills. Teenagers should learn behavior skills such as decision-making and refusing to have sex in their relationships this should be enforced in the programs. If these solutions could be enforced more in the U. S. the percentage rate should be decrease to help our society. Education and mentoring programs are helping but however, every year there are still teens becoming pregnant and entering the programs after the problem. Sex education needs to start in middle school to have a chance to make a difference throughout teen years. How to cite Teenage Pregnancy, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Professional Discourse in Financial Institutions Making Knowledge and Change

Discussion Basically, finance and banking literature falls into two classes. The first category is found in textbooks which introduces basic concepts in this field to trainees. However, textbooks do not have much to speak about profound changes transforming financial systems. The second category on the other hand tends to be discussed by a small group of financial experts.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Professional Discourse in Financial Institutions Making Knowledge and Change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While primarily writing for small professional elites, financial experts often use highly technical language and publish their works in relatively obscure outlets. Knowledge that makes it possible for an individual to influence others is important to changing practice (Grant, 2005, p. 37). This knowledge is, however, ignored frequently in the popular literature on change. The common assumption is that professional knowledge that is relevant to financial professionals is directly applicable to financial practice as new ideas and skills for training and that entrenching these has no appreciable political dimension. Even where financial professional development is expected to lead to transformational change, the practice rhetorical aspects are still largely left out of account (Goodwin, 1994, p. 75). Professional learning cannot only be regarded as a matter of knowledge transfer; rather it also has to be framed on the basis of trainee’s feedback as allowing people theorizing. According to researchers, rhetorical activity is important on the part of those wishing to effect changes in organizational settings if they are to achieve the cooperation of others and neutralize the power of those who oppose (Halliday, 1985, p. 62). The universal work processes and policy issues prove to form knowledge that is significant to success. This is because it offers a basis for developi ng a shared financial language and understanding with which to negotiate with bank managers and others acting as custodians to organizational resources. Collaborative pedagogy, in tapping into cohort as a resource, assists to maximize learning across groups about the operation of banks. (Aitchison, 1991, p.123). Mutual exchanges in financial setting allow people to explore knowledge about work processes because the difference between their experiences opened up questions of how things were managed in different working establishments (Eggins, 1994, p. 292).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that people have access to a range of case studies mediated by experts who could try and answer many of the questions that are unanswered when interrogating written texts or visiting experts (Bourdieu, 1991, p. 71). This paper attempts to review literature related to na rratives produced by bank economics as communally constructed representations of knowledge about in Canadian economy about past, present and future. Specifically, the paper tries to trace the construction and application of particular narrative that is monetary policy. A Review of Related Literature How does Professional Financial Discourse impact Change in Banking Culture? Smart (2006) presents well designed ethnography of Canadian Central bankers’ intellectual duties. He gives an account about discursive ways in which economists in Canadian central bank negotiate, pass and inscribe knowledge about the country’s monetary policies. In his presentations, Smart describes a world that is â€Å"tech-savvy rife with statistics, narratives, computer models, meetings, documents and Benchmarks† (p. 98). He provides presentations using narratives, statistics, computer models, documents, and others in a manner that benefited; the concerns of participants, the manner in wh ich micro events required to be understood as both unique and structured, and concern for situated and dialogical character of ethnographic knowledge (Bloommaert, 2007, p. 682). In his research project at the Bank of Canada, Smart illustrates the use of ethnographic-based genre analysis. In this project, Smart studied technology supported genre practices of economists in the Bank of Canada. He explored the work world and intellectual collaboration of the Bank’s nearly 275 economists. The study drew on qualitative data collected over more than two decades. Two aspects of the economists’ genre practices were well explored. First, the study examined how the economists use a set of written and oral genres, combined with technology of computer run economic models, to collaborate in creating specialized knowledge about current and future developments of Canada’s economy. It was also for the purpose of using this knowledge in directing Canadian national monetary policy (Smart, 2006, p.16)).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Professional Discourse in Financial Institutions Making Knowledge and Change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The narrative on Canadian monetary policy is designed in three stages, over time and across a set of written genres. Each successive version provides broad knowledge claim in the form of more comprehensive accounts of the state of Canadian economy. In the first stage, the story appears as a cluster of what Smart calls sector stories. This means specialists’ analyses of developments in different sectors of Canadian economy. In the second stage, the story is about the economy of Canada as a whole (Smart, 2006, p. 10). This was produced by a team of economists during a quarterly activity inscribed in a document referred to as the White Book. The final stage is an elaborate institutional story, constructed by the Bank executives from the White Book and other sources of information. A staff economist provides an overview of this process of narrative building. The sector specialists all have their little stories that they create using satellite models. Then in the Projection Exercise, the Secretariat uses QPM to pull all these stories together and make them interact with one another to produce a larger story. And then there’s the presentation of the White Book to the executives, where they test and prod your story. And then the executives take it from there themselves (Smart, 2006, p. 16). Smart (2006, p. 10) outlined three stages in construction of monetary policy story. He describes a model mediated collaborative process, in which financial statistical data reflected a wide range of conditions and developments in Canadian economy as interpreted linguistically and changed into narrative representations of knowledge utilized by the bank in conducting monetary policy and in communicating policy to the public. Ho w does Professional Financial Discourse contribute to the Social Change? This perspective understands knowledge to be activity based and socially generated. Knowledge comes from people thinking in action as they participate together in getting things done (Coulman, 1992, p. 172). Further, such thinking in action is seen as being shaped or even defined by means of mediation it employs to carry out a task.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, distributed cognition theorists accord close attention to the various means of mediation; symbolic representations, technologies, and collaborative arrangements that groups use to enable particular specialized forms of reasoning and knowledge creation required to accomplish their work (Bloommaert, 2007, p. 681). Narratives as symbolic representations are means that affect our conceptions of what, how and why we need to know. Bazerman (1991, p. 330) stressed the role of such representations in encouraging inter-subjectivity, that is, the ground of shared understandings necessary for productive intellectual collaboration. He suggests that symbolic representations, whether linguistic, visual, or mathematical, serve to mediate between private spaces of cognition and public spaces in which inter-subjectivity is negotiated, thereby offering shared information, perception, and orientation of large many people involved in coordinated activities (Bargiela-Chiappini, 2004, 120). The ro le of shared symbolic representations in orienting activity, as mentioned by Bazerman (1991, p. 332) it is particularly important in large, complex professional financial organizations. In such cases, representations play an essential part in creating the inter-subjectivity that enables a multitude of people with varied experience, roles, and expertise to collaborate intellectually in a productive manner. In hierarchical organizations, collaborative activity of this kind typically involves the division of cognitive labor, where technical specialists engage in analytical work or surrogate thinking on behalf of more-senior decision makers (Smart, 2006, p. 75). This perspective mediating financial function of symbolic representations indicates the role of monetary policy story constructed by bank economists in the Bank of Canada (Smart, 2006, p. 16). This narrative acts as away of organizational thought that evolves across a set of genres. It serves to align economists’ analytic activities with the bank’s policy mandate and to consolidate the output of their work. Thus, this enables production and application of complex, specialized financial knowledge that central bank requires for conducting monetary policy (Smart, 2006, p. 75). As the monetary policy story evolves, a set of written genres, with its inherent patterns of structured social interaction, functions as a sequence of sites for the deployment of differentiated expertise, for the synthesis of various types of economic analysis as well as for the negotiation and resolution of competing interpretations of empirical phenomena and financial statistical data. This shows how a shared understanding of local narrative conventions and experience with accounting genres involved in construction of monetary policy story contribute to the inter-subjectivity needed for coordinated and productive intellectual collaboration (Fox, 2006, p. 115). Second, the study looked at the utilization of a different se t of technology supported discourse genres by economists to enable the Bank of Canada communicate effectively with the publics, such as; government, business sector, media, and others. These communications are deemed essential for a central bank to maintain public legitimacy as the national monetary policy authority (Smart, 2006, p. 8). The Canadian Central Bank research offers a deep description of discursive systems used by Bank’s economists to design a conceptual world featuring a shared understanding of financial economic reality. What is exemplified in this study is the distinction between ethnography of a social group and a case study of one or several informants or of a single event. The findings realised through the study drew on interviews with 32 Bank economists at different levels in the organizational hierarchy to depict the culture of their professional community (Smart, 2006, p. 10). On the concern of how much time a researcher requires to spend in a site in ord er to produce an authentic ethnography, the study at the Bank of Canada covered 23 years; 14 years as an in-house writing consultant and trainer in which data was gathered and analyzed data continuously (Smart, 2006, p.9). In addition, the observations also covered nine years of sporadic but fruitful research. Based on this experience and that of other ethnographers, a researcher using the Geertzian approach to ethnographic based discourse analysis requires some time, ideally a year or more, regularly observing in a site in order to produce a thick description of a social group’s life world (Geertz, 1973, p. 10). On the relationship between ethnography and theory, and question whether a researcher can commence a study with certain financial theories fixed in mind as conceptual tools. Smart was in agreement of this. In his case, he studied the Bank’s economists already working under the influence of theoretical concepts of epistemic rhetoric, genre and inscription. He t hen ventured to the theoretical well along the way to draw on concepts of modelling, activity, distributed cognition; situated learning, inter-textual, multimodality, organizational change and social production of information to assist interpret financial data. This implies that an ethnographic account is inevitably distinctive in nature. It is specific to a specific financial research financial personal repertoire of perspectives (Smart, 2006, p. 16). On the challenge of whether the accounts designed by ethnographers can assist in theory building in their disciplines, the questioner provides a thick description, ethnographic account of a particular community’s discursively designed life world, can be assumed to hold for other social groups in other settings (Bargiela-Chiappini, 2004, p. 123). Legitimately, a researcher cannot move from producing an account of a single professional organization, for instance, to claiming that the grounding theory derived from this account wil l necessary apply to other organizations (Halliday, 1985, p. 9). However, researchers contends that account of banks can act as heuristic for researchers intending to examine the discourse practices and intellectual collaboration of other professional groups (Brown, 2000, p. 106). Given the similarity in roles and culture of central banks around the world, and the Bank of Canada’s continual interactions with other national and international organizations, aspects of ethnographic account produced from this study applies likely to other professional organizations thus encouraging social change. The reason for this is that in many ways the account accords with ethnographic research by other scholars on discourse practices of professionals in variety of other organizational sites. The aspects of these accounts are likely to be applicable to other professional organizations, such as; Bank of Canada, other central banks, other economic policy organizations, other public policy orga nizations, and other professional organizations (Smart, 2006, p. 10). How does Professional Financial Discourse Impact Social Literacy and Social Change? Most recent perspectives have concentrated on epistemic functions of narrative discourse. Jarratt (1998, p. 63), for example, describes narrative as â€Å"a vehicle for the serious tasks of knowledge creation, storage, and use, while Brown (2000, p. 68). characterizes it as a medium for a â€Å"rich, distinctly valuable sort of knowledge that assumes guises ranging from the scientific to the poetic. Fox (2004, p. 116) in pointing to the frequent use of narrative by scientists, writes of powerful heuristic value narratives have for science as an interpretive and rhetorical strategy and of the way narrative impose significance and coherence on a mass of data by using plots to select and order events. The link between financial narrative and argumentation has also been theorized (Bloommaert, 2007, p. 682). Smart contends that in his torical narrative, point of views and interpretation of evidence are implicitly forms of argument. For him, there are no objective stories different types of historical arguments are inherently lodged in different kinds of narrative. He asserts that one of the ways historical financial narrative argues is through claims of cause and effect, observing that the device of plot carries with it the conjunction of narrative and causal analysis. In a context particularly relevant to research at the Bank of Canada, the use of narrative in the field of economics is candidly discussed. Consequently, despite economics’ scientific posture and empirical methodologies, its knowledge making actually depends on rhetorical devices, particularly narrative and metaphor (Smart, 2006, p. 75). The core of the narrative is significant in the analyzing policy work of Bank of Canada economists (Smart, 2006, p. 75). Recent theorizing suggests that genres in financial professions serve as structures of activity and discourse for generating and applying specialized knowledge necessary for social change. Stable firms with structures that are well defined also get recurrent problems which requires different types of discourse and knowledge (Bloommaert, 2007, p. 681). A written genre on finance can be seen as a broad rhetorical strategy enacted within a financial organization in order to regularize writer/reader transactions in ways that allow for the creation of particular knowledge (Cook, 1992, p. 152). I have also argued for a conception of genre that encompasses regularities in texts, composing processes, and reading practices as well as repeated patterns in an organization’s drama of interaction, the interpersonal dynamics that surround and support certain texts. This view of genre can assist in understanding the nature of collaboration through which an organizational narrative is constructed and applied (Bazerman, 1991, p. 336). A related theme in genre theory concerns t he knowledge-making function of families of genres. Bazerman (1991, p. 336) proposes the concept of the genre system, the full range of typified professional discourse produced by a professional financial organization. He depicts that a financial system of written genres can be interpreted as a multifaceted rhetorical structure for creating and distributing knowledge required for carrying out the work of organization. Bazerman (1991, p. 336) extends the genre system beyond the cluster of genres enacted by practitioners within a single professional group to include other external genres that are part of the group’s interaction with the world at large (Eggins, 1994, p. 294). He suggests substituting the term genre set for intra-professional cluster of genres and reserving the term genre system for entire network of genres enacted between an organization and other participants in a broader structured discursive field (Bazerman, 1991, p. 334). The thought of a genre set used by p ractitioners within a professional group and that of a genre system extending beyond the set to include other genres in a wider discursive field is useful for understanding the dynamics of financial narrative construction. The set of internal genres generated by the Bank of Canada economists function as analytic and rhetorical media. This is important for developing a complex narrative about the Canadian economy that is utilized in forming monetary policy decisions and in communicating policy to the outside the institution. The broader genre system that includes both the genres produced by the bank and the bank-related discourse of government, financial markets, academia, and journalism, enacts the institution’s conversation with other participants in the world of public policy (Smart, 2006, p. 16). A second body of financial theory that can cast light on the collaborative process of narrative construction is distributed cognition; an extension of the Soviet cultural-historic al approach known as activity theory. Departing from a tradition in Western psychology that locates intellectual functioning within the individual, removed from history and sociocultural influences, and that objectifies knowledge, distributed cognition theorists look at intelligence, reasoning, and knowledge as manifest in activity and distributed in nature (Bazerman, 1991, p. 330)). Cognition is observed to be stretched over, that is, activity of individuals working together sharing cultural practices and artifacts to meet identical goal. Summery In sum, researchers may wish to consider applying the account of the role of narrative in collaborative knowledge making at the Bank of Canada as a heuristic for their own investigations into the dynamics of discourse in other professional sites (Smart, 2006, p. 10). In particular, they may need to find out how the process of communal narrative construction may contribute to the creation and application of specialized knowledge necessary t o an organization for accomplishing its mandate. I suggest that researchers involved in such inquiry might find that bringing theories of genre and distributed cognition into play along with concepts of narrative can reveal important aspects of this process (Bazerman,1991, p. 336) Combined together, these theoretical perspectives, with their different but complementary angles of vision, constitute a powerful conceptual frame for examining the discursive practices that enable intellectual collaboration and knowledge making within a professional organization. The Bank of Canada Monetary Policy Report follows the schema of the fully elaborated monetary policy story more explicitly and completely than any other single published text (Smart, 2006, p. 240). Reference List Aitchison, J. (1991). Language change: Progress or decay? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bargiela-Chiappini, F., Fishman, J.A. (Eds.) (2004). Organizational Discourse. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Bazerman, C. (19 91). Textual Professions of Dynamics. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Bloommaert, J. (2007). On Scope and depth in Linguistic Ethnography. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11 (5), 682-633. Bourdieu, P. ( 1991). Language and symbolic power. Cambridge: Polity Press. Brown, G. Yule, G. (2000). Discourse analysis. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. Cook, Guy. (1992). The Discourse of advertising (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge. Coulmas, F. (1992). Language and Economy. Oxford: Blackwell. Eggins, S. (1994). An introduction to systemic functional linguistics. London: Pinter Publishers. Fox, R., Fox, J. (2004). Organizational discourse: language-ideology-power perspective. Westport, Conn: Praeger. Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books. Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional Vision. American Anthropologist 96 (3), 606-633. Grant, D., Iesdima. (2005). Discourse Analysis and the Study of Organizations. Carbondale: Texts 25 (1), 37-66. Halliday, M., Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context and text: Aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Victoria: Deakin University Press. Jarrat, S. (1998). Rereading the Sophists. London: SIU Press Smart, G. (2006). Writing the Economy. London: Equitonox Publishing. This research paper on Professional Discourse in Financial Institutions Making Knowledge and Change was written and submitted by user PrinceofOrphans to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

How to Sell Trees for Timber

How to Sell Trees for Timber Can you sell your tree for lumber and make a profit? Lumber from trees such as red or white oak, black walnut, paulownia, and black cherry is quite expensive, and the tree in your yard may contain an impressive quantity of wood. While it is possible to sell one (or several) trees for lumber, research and effort are required to get a good price from a reputable buyer. Before making the move, think through the pros and cons. Do You Really Want to Remove Your Tree? Before seeking a buyer for your tree, be sure you know why youre removing a valuable hardwood tree from your yard. Are its roots damaging your foundation? Is the foliage overwhelming your home? Or are you just eager to have a bit more lawn? If theres no solid reason to remove the tree, its value may be greater in your yard than at a sawmill. A large hardwood tree provides shade, which cools your home and lowers air conditioning costs. It also improves air quality, controls water runoff, and raises your property value. In addition, your tree may provide homes to songbirds and other native animals. How to Sell a Single Tree It is generally much easier to sell trees as part of a woodlot harvest, where many trees are sold and harvested at the same time. To cut down your tree, a timber buyer must bring in laborers, a log truck, skidder, loader, and other equipment. He must then cut the logs and haul them to the mill to sell. After expenses, its unlikely that hell make any money from cutting a single tree unless its extraordinarily valuable. If youre determined to sell your tree, your best option might be to look for an operator who owns a small, portable sawmill. Small operators have less overhead, and they make their money finding single living or dead high-value trees, then sawing the lumber to specifications that are attractive to woodworkers and turners.   Tips for Selling Multiple Trees Although its easier to sell timber from multiple trees because the profit margin is so much greater for the forester, there are pitfalls even if youre selling quite a bit of wood. One botched sale can cost you much of the value of decades-old timber and can negatively influence future harvests. Here are suggestions for selling multiple trees: 1. Find a Professional Forestry Partner Selling timber requires expert advice. Studies show that timber sellers using a professional forester get up to 50 percent more per sale. A forester who sells trees for a living and practices within your sale area will be your best partner; he will know timber product grades and values and be familiar with local timber buyers and the general market. Private foresters usually offer their services for a fee. Timber owners often find this expense more than offset by the higher selling price received for their timber. Find a  forester  and listen to him as you would to a doctor or lawyer. You and the forester will ultimately have to determine which trees should be cut and how they should be harvested. Your partner will also help you to estimate your trees  volumes  and value. To find a professional forester, according to the U.S. Forest Service: contact your service or County Agricultural Extension or Forestry Extension agent. Service forestry personnel are often located within the state Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, or Forestry Commission. Extension Forestry personnel are typically located at your local Land-Grant university in the Forestry Department. Alternatively, you can visit the website of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, which contains links to every states free services, often including forestry assistance by professional foresters. 2. Understand the Value of Your Timber As a timber grower, you should know something about the quality and value of the timber you are selling. Remember that each tree has unique marketable characteristics and associated volume. Your forester partner will  inventory  the timber for these characteristics and provide an estimate of volumes (along with estimated value) available for harvest. This report can then be used to estimate a fair price you can expect for your sale. From the inventory, you can expect to know: The type of timber forest products youre growing: Different prices are paid for different timber products.The timber species you have for sale: Some species command higher prices than others due to high demand, low supply, or special qualities.The quality of your timber: Quality affects timber values as it does any other product.The volume of timber you can sell: Logging requires heavy equipment and employees, so larger volumes of timber translate to higher profit margins.The distance from the closest market: Transportation of forest products is expensive. Local mills should be able to pay higher prices for your products than more distant mills.The size of your trees: Generally, larger trees bring the best prices. Large saw logs and poles are worth more than small ones. 3. Identify Prospective Timber Buyers and Send Timber Prospectuses You should now identify prospective buyers. Your forester partner most likely will have a list that he works from. You might also want to prepare a list of buyers in the county of sale as well as in surrounding counties. Call your state foresters office or state forestry association for a list of buyers.   Mail a prospectus and bid invitation to each buyer within your procurement region. A sealed bid system should be used and generally results in the highest selling price.  A bid prospectus should be simple but informative and include: Date, time, and location of the bid openingTerms of paymentTimber product, species, and volume summaryLocation mapBid formInformation about the deposit/performance bondStatement of sellers rights to reject bidsNotice of a show-me tour of sale area The potential buyer will probably insist on examining the timber for sale before making an offer. A tour or show-me meeting on the timber site allows all interested buyers to check the volume and quality of the timber and to estimate their logging costs. They should also be allowed to inspect and keep a copy of the contract or agreement you attach to the sale. 4. Understand Your Timber Contract After all bids are received, you and your forester partner should notify the highest acceptable bidder and arrange to execute a written  timber contract. Any deposit or performance bond agreed upon should be collected. Copies of the contract should be prepared for buyer and seller. Regardless of the size of the timber sale, a written contract prevents misunderstanding and protects the buyer and seller. The contract should contain, at a minimum: A description of the timber saleThe selling priceTerms of paymentWhich timber will and wont be cutTime allowed to cut and remove timberA requirement for adherence to all forestry Best Management Practices Special provisions may include cutting extensions; the location of log landings, roads, and skid trails; conditions under which logging wont be permitted; protection of residual timber and other property; a procedure for settling disputes; responsibility for wildfire suppression; disposal of litter; subcontracting of parts of the work; erosion and water quality control measures; and contractor liability exclusions. An easy way for a  do-it-yourselfer  to quickly get into trouble is selling timber using lump sum value with only a handshake and without a tree inventory. Dont sell lump sum without a timber inventory, a contract, and a down payment. Another way to get into big trouble is selling your timber on a pay-as-cut basis while letting the buyer grade and measure logs without you or a representative inspecting his work. Pay-as-cut allows the buyer to pay you by the log load, so you or your forester partner will need to verify the amount of timber in each load. To make sure terms of the timber sale contract are being met, either you or your agent should inspect the operation several times during the harvest and upon completion. 5. Time Your Sale Wisely Timing is important in getting the best price for wood. The best time to sell, obviously, is when  demand for timber is up and prices are at a peak. This is easier said than done, but you should be aware of current stumpage prices and market conditions in your area. Your forester partner can help you to time your sale correctly. With the exception of a specific disaster (from pests, weather, or fire), you shouldnt be rushed into a sale. Trees, unlike other farm products, can be stored on the stump during poor markets. One constant that history always confirms is that timber values eventually go up. 6. Protect Your Land After the Harvest Is Complete Steps should be taken immediately after harvest to protect the land from erosion and to ensure the productivity of this future forest. Roads, skid trails, and logging decks should be secured and reshaped if necessary. Bare areas should be seeded with grass to prevent erosion and provide food for wildlife.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

100 Persuasive Essay Topics

100 Persuasive Essay Topics Persuasive  essays are a bit like argument essays, but they tend to be a little kinder and gentler. Argument essays require you to discuss and to attack an alternate view, while persuasive essays are attempts to convince the reader that you have a believable argument. In other words, you are an advocate, not an adversary. A Persuasive Essay Has 3 Components Introduction: This is the opening paragraph of your essay. It contains the hook, which is used to grab the readers attention, and the thesis, or argument, which youll explain in the next section.Body: This is the heart of your essay, usually three to five paragraphs in length. Each paragraph examines one theme or issue used to support your thesis.Conclusion: This is the final paragraph of your essay. In it, youll sum up the main points of the body and connect them to your thesis. Persuasive essays often use the conclusion as a last appeal to the audience. Learning how to write a persuasive essay is an essential skill that people use every day in fields from business to law to media and entertainment. English students can begin writing a persuasive essay at any skill level. Youre sure to find a sample topic or two from the list of 100 persuasive essays below, sorted by degree of difficulty. 1:53 Watch Now: 12 Ideas for Great Persuasive Essay Topics Beginner Kids should get paid for good grades.Students should have less homework.Snow days are great for family  time.Penmanship is important.Short hair is better than long hair.We should all grow our own vegetables.We need more holidays.Aliens probably exist.Gym class is more important than music class.Kids should be able to vote.Kids should get paid for extra activities like sports.School should take place in the evenings.Country life is better than city life.City life is better than country life.We can change the world.Skateboard helmets should be mandatory.We should provide food for the poor.Children should be paid for doing chores.We should populate the moon.Dogs make better pets than cats. Intermediate The government should impose household trash limits.Nuclear weapons are an effective deterrent against foreign attack.Teens should be required to take parenting classes.We should teach etiquette in schools.School uniform laws are unconstitutional.All students should wear uniforms.Too much money is a bad thing.High schools should offer specialized degrees in arts or sciences.Magazine advertisements send unhealthy signals to young women.Robocalling should be outlawed.Age 12 is too young to babysit.Children should be required to read more.All students should be given the opportunity to study abroad.Yearly driving tests should be mandatory past age 65.Cell phones should never be used while driving.All schools should implement bullying awareness programs.Bullies should be kicked out of school.Parents of bullies should have to pay a fine.The school year should be longer.School days should start later.Teens should be able to choose their bedtime.There should be a mandatory entrance exam for high school. Public transit should be privatized.We should allow pets in school.The voting age should be lowered to 16.Beauty contests are bad for body image.Every American should learn to speak Spanish.Every immigrant should learn to speak English.Video games can be educational.College athletes should be paid for their services.We need a military draft.Professional sports should eliminate cheerleaders.Teens should be able to start driving at 14 instead of 16.Year-round school is a bad idea.High school campuses should be guarded by police officers.The legal drinking age should be lowered to 19.Kids under 15 shouldnt have Facebook pages.Standardized testing should be eliminated.Teachers should be paid more.There should be one world currency. Advanced Domestic surveillance without a warrant should be legal.Letter grades should be replaced with a pass or fail.Every family should have a natural disaster survival plan.Parents should talk to kids about drugs at a young age.Racial slurs should be illegal.Gun ownership should be tightly regulated.Puerto Rico should be granted statehood.People should go to jail when they abandon their pets.Free speech should have limitations.Members of Congress should be subject to term limits.Recycling should be mandatory for everyone.High-speed internet access should be regulated like a public utility.Yearly driving tests should be mandatory for the first five years after getting a license.Recreational marijuana should be made legal nationwide.Legal marijuana should be taxed and regulated like tobacco or alcohol.Child support dodgers should go to jail.Students should be allowed to pray in school.All Americans have a constitutional right to health care.Internet access should be free for everyone.Social Security should be privatized. Pregnant couples should receive parenting lessons.We shouldnt use products made from animals.Celebrities should have more privacy rights.Professional football is too violent and should be banned.We need better sex education in schools.School testing is not effective.The United States should build a border wall with Mexico and with Canada.Life is better than it was 50 years ago.Eating meat is unethical.A vegan diet is the only diet people should follow.Medical testing on animals should be illegal.The Electoral College is outdated.Medical testing on animals is necessary.Public safety is more important than an individuals right to privacy.Single-sex colleges provide a better education.Books should never be banned.Violent video games can cause people to act violently in real life.Freedom of religion has limitations.Nuclear power should be illegal.Climate change should be the presidents primary political concern. Sources Arizona State University Writing Center staff. Persuasive Essay Structure., June 2012.Collins, Jen, and Polak, Adam. Persuasive Essays.